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A cool aid to chemistry. Date_______________Block____________
PURPOSE:
The purpose of this activity is to:
1. To make a solution and then determine what information is needed to calculate the concentration using different methods. (% by mass, molality, molarity, density)
2. Calculate the amount of solute needed to make a specific concentration of solution and then make the solution.
3. Calculate and then dilute a concentrated solution to obtain a new molarity.
DISCUSSION: To calculate the amount needed of a solute needed, the gram formula mass of the solute must be given. A ratio may then be set up to calculate the moles of solute/amount of solution desired to solve for the amount in moles. This may then be converted to grams.
When a solution is prepared in the lab, a volumetric flask is used. The amount of solute needed is calculated and then obtained. The solute is placed in the volumetric flask. The flask has a mark on the neck of the bottle. Water is then added to this mark, reading the bottom of the meniscus. The top is then placed on the flask, and the solution is agitated to obtain a homogeneous mixture. Then the concentration of the solution is recorded on the bottle along with the solute.
EXAMPLE:
250 mL of a 2M NaOH solution is desired. How would this be prepared?
2 moles = x moles x = 0.50 moles solute needed
1 liter soln .25 liters
0.50 moles NaOH = x grams
1 mole NaOH = 40 grams Solve for x: x = 20 grams
To prepare 250 mL of a 2M NaOH solution: Obtain 20 grams of NaOH and place in a 250 mL volumetric flask. Add water to the mark. Stopper and mix. The solution has the concentration of 2 molar. Label the bottle with 2M NaOH.
MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT:
Balance Koolaid (Solute)
120 mL graduated vial concentrated juice solution
paper cups fructose
Cold water (solvent) graduated cylinder
SAFETY: This activity is designed to teach concentration. When mixing chemicals in the lab, the student would not normally be asked to taste a solution. In this lab, special precautions have been taken. The vials used have only been used to make Koolaid solutions. Special care must be taken so that nothing becomes contaminated.
Do not drink the solutions from the vial. The vial is for measuring and mixing only. Pour the solution into a paper cup before drinking.
Do not pour the Koolaid back into the container if you pour out too much. Dispose in the trashcan.
Do not drink the water directly from the squirt bottles. The squirt bottle is designed to ease the pouring of the water.
DIRECTIONS:
Be careful not to contaminate any of the vials during this lab. Do not pour the Koolaid back into the container if you take too much. Dump the excess in the trashcan. Use proper technique at all times.
You will make 4 different solutions of Koolaid. If at anytime you do not want to taste the solutions, you do not have to, just give the solution to the instructor to taste.
FOR ALL EQUATIONS: 1 MOLE KOOLAID = 40 GRAMS
The gram formula mass of 1 mole Koolaid  40 grams
Procedure:
PART A
1. Measure 9.00 grams Fructose (C6H12O6) into a 150 mL beaker.
2. Measure out 60.0 mL of tap water into a graduated cylinder. Add water to the beaker containing the fructose. Stir with a spoon until all of the sugar goes into solution.
3. Measure the volume of the final solution with your graduated cylinder. Record the final volume in the space provided;
Final Volume of solution: _____________ (dont forget your sig figs and units)
4. Rinse your sugar solution down the sink and rinse out graduated cylinder.
CALCULATIONS:
1. Calculate the percent by mass of your fructose solution. Show equation:
2. Assume the density of water = 1.00 g/cm3. Calculate the molality of your solution.
3. Calculate the molarity of your solution.
4. Calculate the density of your solution:
PART B:
1. The first solution to make is: 100 mL of a 2M Koolaid solution.
Step 1: Calculate the amount in grams of solute needed:
Example of calculations are shown below. Follow these steps for the preparation of the other solutions.
The gram formula mass of the Koolaid is 40 grams = 1 mole.
To do the calculation: Molarity x volume = moles
The first calculation is to calculate the amount in moles of solute(Koolaid) needed.
100 mL = 0.1 liters 2moles/liter x 0.1 L = 0.2 moles Koolaid
Now convert moles to grams:
0.2 moles Koolaid = x grams
1 mole Koolaid = 40 grams
Solve for x: x =8 grams of Koolaid.
Part C: Make the solution
To make this solution:
1. Take the clean vial and place on the balance and tare.
2. Slowly pour the solute (Koolaid) into the smaller vial until the balance reads 8 grams.
3. Remove the vial from the balance and return to your groups.
4. Now read the side of the graduated vial. You will now add water until the final volume of the solution is 100 mL.
5. Snap the top on the vial. Shake to mix and make a homogeneous mixture.
6. Pour into your paper cups (split with your partner). Taste the solution. The manufacturer of Koolaid recommends this concentration.
Does your solution taste like the correct concentration? ___________
2. For your second solution: Make 50 mL of a 4M Koolaid solution:
Show all calculations needed to make the solution. Place the amount of solute needed in the space below.
Amount of solute needed: _________________
You have the calculation, and you know the final volume of the solution should be 50 mL. Now make the solution. Taste the solution. Answer the following questions:
a. Was the 4M solution more or less concentrated than the 2M solution? __________________
b. Could you taste the difference? ____________
3. Now make a 3rd solution: Make 60 mL of a 2M solution. Show all calculations. Fill in the line below to indicate the amount of solute added: Taste the solution.
Amount of solute: ______________________
4. Now make a 4th solution. Make 70 mL of a 1M Koolaid solution. Show all calculations. Fill in the line below to indicate the amount of solute added. Taste the solution.
Amount of solute: ____________________
How did this solution taste? Use terms to describe the concentration:
DILUTIONS:
5. There is a concentrated solution of juice. . The concentration of the solution is 8M. The correct solution should be 2M. You will need to add water to dilute the solution to obtain the correct molarity.
Use the formula: M1V1 = M2V2
1. Obtain 20 ml of the 8M juice solution in the plastic vial. Calculate the final volume needed to dilute the solution to a 2M solution. Show all equations and calculations. Fill in the boxes below. Using the calculations, dilute the concentrated juice. Taste.
a. Final volume of the solution after dilution (V2): _____________________
b. If you started with 20 mL of solution, how much water was added to the 8M solution to make it a 2M solution? ___________________ (this number is not the same as V2)
QUESTIONS:
1. Define the following terms:
SOLUTE:__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SOLVENT:_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SOLUTION:________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
MOLARITY:_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. In the first part of the experiment, what was the solute used?___________________
3. What was the solvent used in this lab? ___________________________________
4. What do you call a solution that uses water as the solvent?
An _______________________ solution.
5. What is the molarity of a solution that contains 4 grams of NaOH in 500 mL of solution? Show all calculations.
6. What is the molarity of a solution that contains 28 grams of KOH in 2 liters of solution?
7. If 500 mL of 2.0 M HCl is diluted with water to a volume of 1 liter, what is the molarity of the new solution?
8. How many moles of KNO3 are required to make 0.50 liters of a 2.0 M solution of KNO3?
9. Which is more concentrated? (Circle the answer): 200 mL of a 8M NaOH solution or 500 mL of a 4M NaOH solution
10. What is the true molarity of the koolaid solution? Assume Koolaid is 100% sucrose. (C12H22O11 ) It took 80 grams Koolaid/Liter solution for the correct concentration.
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