> JLI G:bjbj *Taa21bbbbbvvv8$DvW"888888,Ob88888bb888Rb8b8805_u'0Wb0888888W888888888(:
Molarity of a Solution Name_______________________________
A cool aid to chemistry.
PURPOSE:
The purpose of this activity is to:
1. Calculate the amount of solute needed to make a specific molarity of a solution. Using these calculations, each solution will be made.
2. Calculate and then dilute a concentrated solution to obtain a new molarity.
DISCUSSION:
To calculate the amount needed of a solute needed, the gram formula mass of the solute must be given or calculated. By rearranging the formula: Molarity = moles of solute/volume of solution, the following equation is obtained: Molarity x volume of solution (in liters) = moles of solute. Using the gram formula mass of the substance, the amount of substance can be calculated in grams.
When a solution is prepared in the lab, a volumetric flask is used. A volumetric flask is a special flask that has been calibrated to hold a specific amount of solution.
TO PREPARE A SOLUTION: the amount of solute needed is calculated and then obtained. The solute is placed in the volumetric flask. The flask has a mark on the neck of the bottle. Water is then added to this mark, reading the bottom of the meniscus. The top is then placed on the flask, and the solution is agitated to obtain a homogeneous mixture. Then the concentration of the solution is recorded on the bottle along with the symbol of the solute. The symbol M represents molarity, the concentration equal to the number of moles of solute contained in 1 liter of the solution.
EXAMPLE:
250 mL of a 2.0M NaOH solution is desired. How would this be prepared?
Molarity x volume (in liters) = moles of solute
2.0M NaOH = 2.0 moles NaOH/liter of solution 250 mL = 0.25 L
2.0 moles NaOH/liter of solution x 0.25 L = 0.50 moles NaOH
0.50 moles NaOH x 40 grams/mole NaOH = 20. grams NaOH
To prepare 250 mL of a 2.0M NaOH solution: Obtain 20. grams of NaOH and place in a 250 mL volumetric flask. Add water to the mark. Stopper and mix. The solution has the concentration of 2.0 molar. Label the bottle with 2.0M NaOH.
MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT:
Balance Kool-aid( (Solute) in 300 mL vial
120 mL graduated vial concentrated juice solution
paper cups Cold water (solvent)
SAFETY: This activity is designed to teach concentration. When mixing chemicals in the lab, the student would not normally be asked to taste a solution. In this activity, special precautions have been taken. The vials used have only been used to make Kool-aid( solutions. Special care must be taken so that the vials do not become contaminated.
Do not drink the solutions from the vial. The vial is for measuring and mixing only.
Pour the solution into a paper cup before drinking.
Do not pour the solid Kool-aid( back into the container if you pour out too much. Dispose of the excess in the trashcan.
Do not drink the water directly from the bottle.
PART 1 PREPARATION OF SOLUTIONS
DIRECTIONS:
In the first part of this activity, you will make 4 different solutions of Kool-aid(. It is not required that you taste these solutions. If you do not wish to taste the solution, give the solution to the instructor to taste.
FOR ALL EQUATIONS: 1 MOLE KOOL-AID( = 40 GRAMS
Make the following solutions. For each solution, show all work in calculating the correct amount of solute. Do your calculations on a separate sheet of paper. Label each paper cup with the correct concentration. After all four solutions have been prepared, taste each solution and answer the questions.
Sample #1. Make:100.0 mL of a 2.0M Kool-aid( solution. Do the calculations on your separate sheet of paper, then prepare the solution.
Sample #2 Make 50.0 mL of a 4.0M Kool-aid( solution. Do calculations first, then prepare as before.
Sample #3 Make 60.0 mL of a 2.0M Kool-aid( solution. Repeat
Sample #4 Make 70.0 mL of a 1.0M Kool-aid( solution. Repeat.
QUESTIONS:
1. Which concentration of Kool-aid( tastes correct?
2. The first calculation for 100 mL of a 2M solution and the second calculation for 50 mL of a 4M solution came out with the same amount of solute used. Explain why the two solutions tasted differently.
3. Which of the four solutions was the most concentrated?
4. In the Kool-aid( solution, what was the solvent used?
5. In the Kool-aid( solution, what was the solute used?
6. The Kool-aid solid is mostly sucrose. Sucrose is hygroscopic.
a. What does hygroscopic mean? b. Because sucrose is hygroscopic, how should it be stored properly in the cupboard?
PART 2 DILUTIONS:
In this part of activity, you are to calculate the amounts needed to dilute a concentrated solution. Assume the concentrated juice has a concentration of 8.0M. The correct solution should be 2.0M when diluted. You will need to add water to dilute the solution to obtain the correct molarity.
Use the formula: M1V1 = M2V2
The initial concentration x initial volume = final concentration x final volume
1. Obtain 20.0 ml of the 8.0M juice solution in the plastic vial. Calculate the final volume needed to dilute the solution to a 2.0M solution.
-On your separate sheet of paper, show all equations and calculations. Using the calculations, dilute the concentrated juice. Place the diluted juice in a paper cup labeled 2.0M.
2. Calculate how much of the solution you will need initially if the final product is to be 60.0 mL of a 2.0M solution. Obtain this initial volume of solution, dilute it to a final volume of 60.0 mL. Place the diluted juice in a paper cup labeled 2.0M.
3. Now taste the two solutions. Answer the following questions.
Dilution QUESTIONS: Place the answers on a separate sheet of paper.
1. In the first calculation, the initial volume of concentrate was 20.0mL. a. What was the final volume of the solution after dilution?
b. What was the amount of water that was added to obtain the final solution? (This answer should be different from answer a).
2 Did the two solutions taste the same ? Explain your answer.
3. Define the following terms:
SOLUTE, SOLVENT, SOLUTION, MOLARITY
4. Correct common names of solutions:
a. What do you call a solution that uses water as the solvent?
b. What do you call a solution that uses alcohol as the solvent?
5 Calculate the molarity of a solution that contains 4.0 grams of NaOH in 500.0 mL of solution? Show all work in your calculations.
6. What is the molarity of a solution that contains 28 grams of KOH in 2.0 liters of solution?
Show all math.
7. If 500.0 mL of 2.0 M HCl is diluted with water to a volume of 1.0 liters, what is the molarity of the new solution?
Show all math.
8. How many moles of KNO3 are required to make 0.50 liters of a 2.0 M solution of KNO3?
Show all math.
9. Which is more concentrated? 200 mL of a 8M NaOH solution or 500 mL of a 4M NaOH solution
10. Assume the solute is pure table sugar. Table sugar is called sucrose. The molecular formula for sucrose is C12H22O11.
a. Calculate the gram formula mass for sucrose.
b. Calculate the molarity of the solution if 80.0 grams sucrose are dissolved in 1.0 liter of solution.
TEACHER NOTES:
Eating or drinking should not be allowed in a chemistry lab. This activity should be done in a classroom other than a science room. Some suggestions are to use the cafeteria, home economics room, or another classroom that does not contain chemicals.
In this activity, the small plastic vials (120 mL) will serve as the volumetric flasks for preparation of the solutions. Instruct the students to use the vials in the following manner to teach proper technique.
To avoid contamination:
Open vial. Tare or weight vial on scale. Obtain the amount of solute necessary for the preparation of the solution based on your calculations. Add water to the vial using the graduated sides. Make sure the students read the metric side of the scale. Snap the vial shut and secure. Shake to obtain a homogenous mixture. Open the vial and pour the solution into paper cups.
Tasting should be done from the paper cups.
The large plastic vials hold 300 mL
The large plastic vials should be labeled: SOLUTE Gram formula mass = 40
The Kool-aid( powder should be placed in the large plastic vials.
SUGGESTIONS:
This experiment was designed to use the tropical punch flavor of Kool-aid(. It was determined that approximately 80 grams dissolved in 1.0 liter of solution was the correct concentration as determined by the manufacturer. Any type of powdered drink can be substituted. Just obtain the amount needed to make 0.50 liters and substitute this amount as the gram formula mass of the solute. The final concentration will remain 2.0M.
Do not save the Kool-aid( powder from year to year. It will tend to clump into hard clusters due to the tendency of sucrose to absorb water from the air.
Part 1: To make solution 1:
1. Take the clean vial and place on the balance and tare.
2. Slowly pour the solute (Kool-aid) into the smaller vial until the balance reads 8.0 grams.
3. Remove the vial from the balance and return to your groups.
4. Now read the side of the graduated vial. You will now add water until the final volume of the solution is 100 mL.
5. Snap the top on the vial. Shake to mix and make a homogeneous mixture.
6. Pour into your paper cups (split with your partner). Taste the solution. The manufacturer of Kool-aid recommends this concentration.
The concentrated solutions used in part 2 can be purchased in the juice section of any grocery store. Purchase the concentrate cans that require no refrigeration. Read the dilution directions on the can and make sure the dilution is 3 cans of water for the 1 can purchased. This way the concentrate can be labeled 8.0M with the correct concentration being 2.0M.
The easiest way to dispense the water is to purchase spring water in sports bottles with the tops that pop up. Place the water bottles in a bucket of ice to keep cold.
ANSWERS TO CALCULATIONS AND QUESTIONS:
Part 1: Preparation of solutions:
1. 100.0 mL of 2.0 M solution 2.0 moles/liter x 0.1000 L = .20 moles
0.20 moles Kool-aid( x 40 grams/mole = 8.0 grams Kool-aid(
2. 50.0 mL of 4.0M = 8.0 grams Kool-aid(
3. 60.0 mL of 2.0M = 4.8 grams Kool-aid(
4. 70.0 mL of 1.0M = 2.8 grams Kool-aid
Answers to QUESTIONS part 1:
1. The 2.0M solution should taste correct.
2. Both #1 and #2 calculations were 8.0 grams of Kool-aid(. The solutions tasted differently because they contained different amounts of water. The concentrations were different.
3. The most concentrated solution is #3. This solution has a concentration of 4.0M.
4. The solvent used in making the Kool-aid solution is water.
5. The solute used in making the Kool-aid solution is the Kool-aid powder. This powder is mostly sucrose.
6. a. Hygroscopic means the substance absorbs moisture from the air. Sucrose will become sticky if exposed to the air and then form very hard lumps.
b. Sucrose should be stored in a sealed container to avoid exposure to the air.
Part 2.
1. 20.0 mL of 8.0M solution initial Final concentration = 2.0 M Final volume = 80. mL
2. Initial molarity = 8.0M Initial volume =?
Final molarity = 2.0M Final volume = 60.0mL
Answer: initial volume = 15 mL
3. The two solutions should taste the same. They are the same concentration 2M.
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS part 2:
1.a. The final volume after dilution is 80.0 mL b. The amount of water added was only 60.0 mL.
2. The two solutions should taste the same. They are both 2M.
3. Solute should be defined as the substance being dissolved in a solution. Solute may also be defined as the substance in lesser quantity when a solution is made.
Solvent should be defined as the substance doing the dissolving in a solution. Solvent may also be defined as t he substance in greater quantity when a solution is made.
Solution should be defined as a homogeneous mixture composed of a solute and solvent.
Molarity should be defined as a form of concentration expressing the moles of solute used in a given liter of solution.
4. A solution that uses water as the solvent is called an aqueous solution.
A solution that uses alcohol as the solvent is called a tincture.
5. 4.0 grams NaOH = 0.10 moles NaOH (gram formula mass NaOH = 40)
Molarity = moles solute/volume solution
0.10 moles NaOH/0.5000L = 0.20 M NaOH
6. 28 grams KOH = 0.50 moles (Gram formula mass KOH = 56)
0.50 moles KOH / 2.0 L = 0.25M KOH
7. M1V1 = M2V2 2.0M x .5000L = M2 x 1.0L
M2= 1.0M
8. Molarity x volume = moles 2.0M x 0.50L = 1 moleKNO3
9. 8M is more concentrated than 4M. Dont get tricked on the amount of solution. The question asks for concentration.
10. a. The gram formula mass for sucrose C12H22O11 = 342 grams
b. 80.0 grams x 1 mole/342 grams = 0.234 M
PAGE
PAGE 4
Kool-aid lab
=XZaj t
!9LMrYyzi;g
%&/:DghALRVٸhxOJQJh]OJQJ\h]5H*OJQJh]5OJQJ\h]5>*OJQJ jh]H*OJQJh]6OJQJh]OJQJh]5OJQJB=YZe h i j x
HIyz^234 :fr%XYziX:$a$:EyE4]^,-45$a$
\] J Q !!5"6"###!#"#$#9#J#%%''(&(p(q()), jh]CJOJQJh]CJH*OJQJh]h]5CJOJQJ\h]5CJH*OJQJh]5CJH*OJQJh]5CJOJQJh]5>*CJOJQJh]CJOJQJh]OJQJhxOJQJ45uv b c I!Y!!!:"J"""(#X####$$%%%%6'7'e'f'''(('())s*t***.+o++3,,,+.,... /l///,,..///////00.090B0I0K000I4]4d4f4888888888888-9.9999999::::::::!:":ĶĶꘔjh]0JUh?.jh?.Uh]CJH*OJQJhl5CJOJQJhlh]5CJOJQJhlhl5CJOJQJ jh]CJOJQJh]5CJOJQJh]CJOJQJh]6CJOJQJ5/0.0K0v0+111)2233{3333I4f444555W66%7&7r77777%8M8N88888888/909999::::::: :!:*:+:h]h&`#$":(:):*:,:-:3:4:5:6:7:E:F:G:h]CJOJQJh?.jh]0JU*hx0JmHnHu*h]jh]0JU
h]0J
+:,:7:D:E:F:G:h]h&`#$(/ =!"#$`%666666666vvvvvvvvv666666>6666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666hH6666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666662 0@P`p2( 0@P`p 0@P`p 0@P`p 0@P`p 0@P`p 0@P`p8XV~_HmH nH sH tH L`LNormal5$7$8$9DH$CJ_HmH sH tH F@F Heading 1$@&5CJOJQJ\DA`DDefault Paragraph FontViV
0Table Normal :V44
la(k (
0No List44Header
!4 @4Footer
!.)@.Page NumberPK!pO[Content_Types].xmlj0Eжr(]yl#!MB;.n̨̽\A1&ҫ
QWKvUbOX#&1`RT9<l#$>r `С-;c=1g~'}xPiB$IO1Êk9IcLHY<;*v7'aE\h>=^,*8q;^*4?Wq{nԉogAߤ>8f2*<")QHxK
|]Zz)ӁMSm@\&>!7;wP3[EBU`1OC5(F\;ܭqpߡ 69&MDO,ooVM M_ո۹U>7eo >ѨN6}
bvzۜ6?ߜŷiLvm]2SFnHD]rISXO]0 ldC^3شd$s#2.h565!v.chNt9W
dumԙgLStf+]C9P^%AW̯f$Ҽa1Q{B{mqDl
u" f9%k@f?g$p0%ovkrt ֖ ? &6jج="MN=^gUn.SƙjмCR=qb4Y" )yvckcj+#;wb>VD
Xa?p
S4[NS28;Y[,T1|n;+/ʕj\\,E:!
t4.T̡e1
}; [z^pl@ok0e
g@GGHPXNT,مde|*YdT\Y䀰+(T7$ow2缂#G֛ʥ?qNK-/M,WgxFV/FQⷶO&ecx\QLW@H!+{[|{!KAi
`cm2iU|Y+ި [[vxrNE3pmR
=Y04,!&0+WC܃@oOS2'Sٮ05$ɤ]pm3FtGɄ-!y"ӉV
.
`עv,O.%вKasSƭvMz`3{9+e@eՔLy7W_XtlPK!
ѐ'theme/theme/_rels/themeManager.xml.relsM
0wooӺ&݈Э5
6?$Q
,.aic21h:qm@RN;d`o7gK(M&$R(.1r'JЊT8V"AȻHu}|$b{P8g/]QAsم(#L[PK-!pO[Content_Types].xmlPK-!֧6-_rels/.relsPK-!kytheme/theme/themeManager.xmlPK-!!Z!theme/theme/theme1.xmlPK-!
ѐ'(
theme/theme/_rels/themeManager.xml.relsPK]#
G2@T 0003,":G:"%(:5%/7+:G: !#$&') 3!!T2222222 2!272?2E2H2?.xl]X7&22@VV2VVG2@UnknownG*Ax Times New Roman5Symbol3*Cx ArialA$BCambria Math"hgcgӦy*Zy*Z!xx20112HP $P'X72!xx,>Molarity of a Solution Name_______________________________Sally MitchellSally Mitchell
Oh+'0$8 P\
'@Molarity of a Solution Name_______________________________Sally MitchellNormal.dotmSally Mitchell4Microsoft Macintosh Word@Ik@]i@qQj@*Duy*
՜.+,08
px
' hZ1?Molarity of a Solution Name_______________________________Title
!"#$%&'()*,-./012345678:;<=>?@BCDEFGHKRoot Entry F_uM1Table+WordDocument*TSummaryInformation(9DocumentSummaryInformation8ACompObj` F Microsoft Word 97-2004 DocumentNB6WWord.Document.8